Anatomy of war and fear
Refugee camps and Syrian families Attitudes towards civil war in Syria
Human Rights Research (2014-2012). Mohammad ibdah
Section 1: Media and human rights:
When Steven Spielberg showed for the entire world how hard it was to be in the middle of war, through his film (Saving Private Ryan), how it was so horrifically the soldier’s reportedly triggered nightmares and flashbacks battle. Amid the grim shambles of hand-to-hand fighting, arterial blood covered the beach, men crying for their mothers (mama!).
A quick visit to any military hospitals during´-or-after war, make us really understand how the war affects soldiers, although the military exercises, physical and mentally prepared that precede going to war, if the case is so, then let us just imagine what will happened to the civilian innocent people especially the women and children’s ?
As Spielberg’s film covers the Normandy landings where much modern combat research began. Also thousands of international media reports covered many details of that war´-or-any other war from many sides.
During the fifteen years I spent in service with the United Nations , where I was working at UNRWA , in the legal section at the Department of Architecture , and in charge of the construction of refugee camps , most of those camps around the world have been created due to the war circumstances, Through these long years of serving, I ve written hundreds of field reports about the difficult humanitarian situation faced by refugees , in order to cover a fraction of their daily needs and alleviate their suffering catastrophic , those field reports about the situation of the population of the refugee camps , for example in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Gaza and the West Bank, Jordan, Yemen, Libya, Egypt , Sudan, Somalia , Ethiopia and others, makes the tragedies suffered by soldiers in World war II just stroll.
Through practical experience in communicating with local and international media , which covers conditions of war and its aftermath , I can say for sure that these media outlets have three goals comes arranged according to priority and briefly as follows:
A- Political goals: Media of some countries especially non- democratic governments, portraying opponents as terrorists´-or-other Titles, which makes detained and tortured, and even killed them is justified action.
B- Economic goals: Such as commercial advertise´-or-channels.
C- Humanity goals: Such the media of the Human rights organizations, and global relief agencies.
In certain cases media close to the governments, mix two goals political and financial, by covering the events and changes facts to extent that serves interests of those governments. Either to raise and collect money from donor countries, like the host courtiers for refugees camp like Jordan and Lebanon and others,´-or-for long-term strategy goals and practical examples of this are many, like what happened in the Second Gulf War, where it was the destruction of Iraq under the pretext of possessing weapons of mass destruction, it has the media to submit evidence and false pictures about the constructors Iraqi nuclear weapons, while the real goal is to control Iraqi oil fields, and ensure the safety of Israel. In other way serve the USA political and financial interests.
However, we are and regardless of the real objectives for the various means of media, we can not underestimate the importance of that media in getting the facts about the hardships faced by the population of the refugee camps, and here I want to thank all the great efforts being made by any person who was in his position, whether via television news´-or-newspaper,´-or-the means of social communication,´-or-any means.
Faraway from political and financial media goals, what we concern in this research is the humanity goals, and to do so let’s go back to the year of 2011, when the war started in Syria. Death and destruction forced the Syrian people to leave their homeland and flee to the nearest safe place.
The Syrian refugees file and one of the most humanitarian files dangerous in the Syrian issue , given the serious humanitarian , social, economic and educational dimensions left by resorting to the refugee community and their families who are not refugees , and the leaves of similar effects on host communities , gives this violation of international dimension and territories , other than the rest of the abuses that are being ignored by the international community , which is-limit-ed to its impact on the Syrian human basically .
Also it represents the outcome of the asylum issue for the rest of violations , showing the quantitative size is unprecedented in the modern era level of brutality exerted on the Syrian people by the regime , and that prompted millions of people to abandon their homes and live in places not fit each human to live.
In this report, we will review the main reasons that prompted the Syrians for Migration, and the impact of the asylum to refugees and host communities alike, the Syrian government and to deal with the issue of asylum, recommendations and conclusions that can be drawn.
This report will not address the issue of displaced people who have left their population areas, but they remained inside Syria.
Section 2: The beginning of the asylum:
The problem of migration and as ylum began in the early months of the revolution, when Syrian authorities began using excessive violence against civilian areas, where the use of heavy weapons in Leticia and Deraa in April and May 2011, after about two months of the beginning of the revolution, which the people had to move to places another within their province´-or-to the neighboring province.
However, the increasing violence of the party of power led to the formation of the first cases of migration to the outside Syria, where the first cases of asylum in the Lebanese territory at the beginning of the month of May / May 2011 recorded, when the Syrian army forces launched a major offensive on the border town of Tal Kalakh, moved hundreds of Syrian families Lebanese Wadi Khalid area, adjacent to the Tal Kalakh. The number of such families is not known, because the Lebanese authorities did not announce the number of these refugees, and they were not registered as refugees with any international organization.
On 7/6/2011 the first recorded cases of the use of Turkish territory when she arrived illegally, the first group of 122 people, most of them to the city of Carpeaz bridge Quia village in the province of Hatay in southern Turkey, to coincide with the extended campaign, which at the time was led by the army on the Bridge City vacancy, and helicopters have been used extensively.
With the end of the second week of the month June 2011 the number of refugees in Turkey has reached 8,500 people.
The accelerated payment of the arrival of Syrian refugees to Turkey to build the first refugee camp in the first week of June 2011, in Walton -Ouzou spend in Hatay province, with a capacity of 5,000 people. However, the camp was filled in the early days of its inception, where the number of those who fled to Turkey in the second week of this month, 8,500 people, which build the second camp in the area Aaaladagi, summoned. At the beginning of the month of May / May 2011 start of the influx of Syrian refugees to Jordan from May / May , specifically from Daraa , after the big attack by government forces on the city , but the Syrian refugees in Jordan were not at that time were in the camps , where they proceeded Jordanian authorities to get them to stay in apartments with relatives ,´-or-through apartments provided by some benefactors , especially in the city of Mafraq and Ramtha border points , it has remained that way until the opening of the Zaatari refugee camp on 29/7/2012 .
A-The motives of asylum:
The asylum process and the exodus began after the use of the Syrian authorities for excessive violence in dealing with areas that have seen protests against the regime, which has been randomly shelling of these areas, prompting residents to flee to other areas within their areas´-or-in other provinces,´-or-resort to the neighboring countries.
But other abuses were systematically practice helped to increase dramatically asylum waves and, consequently, we ll show the highlights of practices that have led to waves of displacement and asylum witnessed by Syria since the protests began on 15/3/2011 and until the date of preparation of the report:
1- Excessive violence towards areas where protests against the government, as was the use of indiscriminate shelling and use of all kinds of heavy weapons since the second month of the revolution, and still use continues today, and steadily, has been associated with asylum -dir-ectly with the size of the violence used and the extent of continuity, where the incessant shelling led to a continuing civilian casualties randomly, also led to the destruction of many homes, are no longer habitable, has also become a lot of buildings are threatened to fall .
2- Systematic policy of massacres, which resulted in the massacres committed in the vicinity of the city of Homs and Deraa, Aleppo to waves of displacement in its vicinity, in anticipation of similar massacres.
3- Systematic policy of siege, which began to be used since the second month of the revolution , when the siege imposed on the city of Deraa in 4/5/2011 , followed by the siege on the city of Banias, then Rastan and paneling, then use on a large scale then in Homs, Damascus and Aleppo. This policy has pushed to increase the suffering of civilians living, and led them to search for a way out of the besieged areas.
4- Rape, systematic policy, and the abduction of girls, sexual harassment by security and mercenary elements, a policy that has been used systematically in several areas, during the years 2011 and 2012, prompting a large number of families to leave Syria for fear of such violations on one of their family members, for to this matter of extreme sensitivity in the Syrian social context.
5- Con-script-ion policy, calling reservists, prompting a large number of families out of the country for fear of calling her children male to reserve service, which has become a threat to the lives of their children on the one hand,´-or-the unwillingness of others to serve in the army its guns -dir-ected toward his people.
6- General economic situation, which led many to leave their country without the presence of a -dir-ect threat to their lives, as a result of the cessation of the economy in general, in parallel with the surge in prices, and stop public services.
B-The Syrian government deal with the refugee file:
The Syrian government sought to ignore the problem of asylum such disregard for the rest of the violations that occurred on the Syrians, has not issued official statements´-or-positions equivalent to the size of this problem, and in the first year of the crisis by reducing the size´-or-denied altogether.
At the beginning of the month of June 2011, Reem Haddad Syrian television -dir-ector at the time, said in an interview with BBC channel in English that the Syrian refugees who went to Turkey, but they are on a visit to relatives there, but not in the case of asylum.
On 06/20/2011 Syrian Foreign Minister Walid Muallem said in a meeting with Jacob Kellenberger, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross said hundreds of families who fled to Turkey have begun return to their homes after take care of security there in the recipe, although military operations have not over time, the government did not fully control the security since then. The official Syrian media and the media pro have worked on the promotion of this news, as an end to the problem of asylum. On 01/10/2012 Syrian Foreign Minister Walid al-Moallem -dir-ectly talked about the Syrian refugees problem for the first time, when he said in his speech before the United Nations General Assembly that some countries pay armed groups to intimidate the population in the border areas, forcing them to migrate to neighboring countries, to be and put them in places´-or-barren and rugged, in order to exploit their plight to get aid spent mostly on humanitarian purposes not related justifications, he appealed in his speech refugees to return to their country, and said that his government to guarantee them a decent life.
But Faisal Mekdad, deputy Syrian foreign minister confirmed 5/11/2011 in the so-called problem of Syrian refugees are vexatious problem to justify the intervention of some regional countries, the United States and Western Europe in the Syrian affairs. The situation of refugees in countries of asylum
C-The Situation of Syrian refugee:
Syrian refugee situations differ from another country, according to three factors: the number of Syrian refugees in this country, and the policy of this state toward the events in Syria in general and its policy towards refugees, in particular, the financial possibilities of this state.
According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) , the number of refugees today ( 11.20.2013 ) of 2,244,760 refugees , of whom 824,288 in Lebanon and 553,311 in Jordan, 521,493 in Turkey and 202,976 in Iraq and 127,733 in Egypt. But UNHCR figures do not include the number of Syrian refugees living in neighboring countries without being registered as refugees, especially those who have entered the legitimate ways, especially since these countries (including Egypt until the month of July 2013) is not asking the Syrians for a transit visa, nor include the number of refugees who have moved to other countries in the region´-or-to the rest of the world, where the number of Syrian refugees up to about 5 million people.
Despite the presence of the largest number of Syrian refugees in Lebanon, but Lebanon does not include any formal refugee camp, but with the increasing number of refugees there have become random clusters of small camps estimated to number in the dozens in different parts of Lebanon.
Syrian students are allowed to enter the Lebanese public schools free of charge, but the problem lies in the lack of official capacity of schools to accommodate the number of Syrians who are of school age , prompting the Lebanese government to instruct the opening evening time in schools spread over various Lebanese areas.
In Jordan, most of the refugees he shall set in Zaatari camp, which was established on 29/7/2012, and provide them with food, health and medical care and education services in the camp, the refugees can reside outside the camp, enroll their children in public schools, and treated the Jordanian student treatment. But public schools are no longer able to accommodate the growing number of refugees, prompting the High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) for the use of public schools in the evening periods, as has been opened Bahrain schools and other Saudi inside the Zaatari refugee camp.
Refugees suffer particularly from poor health services provided to them, especially for those with chronic diseases, such as kidney failure and thalassemia.
In Turkey, the number of camps reached 22 camps, the number of Syrian refugees in which about 225 thousand inhabitants, is a refugee in Turkey put the best of the situation of refugees in both countries.
The Turkish government has distributed bank cards to each refugee, is placed monthly payment by the Turkish government, as well as private funds seasonal (special provision for winter clothing, and the amount of special needs schools ..), a gesture considered the first of its kind in the history of dealing with refugees in the world.
As for the Syrians distributors on Turkish cities outside the camps, estimated to number around 400 thousand Syrians, has been extended stays for them, a residence for them to work, the government has borne all the fines imposed on the latecomers.
The government also provided medical services to the Syrians inside and outside the camps, and turned a blind eye for schools have been created, was supporting this school stationery supplies. The government also has opened clinics in serving patients who leave the hospital recuperating, until they complete recovery, also allowed the Syrians to doctors to practice inside the camps, despite the fact that Turkish law forbids the work of non-Turkish doctor on Turkish territory.
For university students, the government has provided scholarships for students to study the Syrians in Turkish universities, and allowed for students who do not have identification papers from their universities to complete their studies in universities in southern Turkey.
In Egypt, there are no refugee camps there, and lives of those Syrians in the houses they rented, and they work by themselves to secure adequate resources for their lives, whether through work´-or-through remittances they receive from relatives outside of Egypt. Also, some charities will support the refugees who have such resources are not available to them. And it has provided some charities housing for refugees, while other associations provided food, clothing and financial aid.
The previous Egyptian government has issued a decision to the treatment of Syrian students transaction Egyptian students, a decision which has not issued any amendment to it until now, and this decision helped to solve the problem of school and university education for students of the Syrians who are in Egypt, despite the presence of bureaucratic obstacles and administrative experience some refugees as a result of not having the papers supporting the full.
Facing Syrian refugees in Egypt, a campaign of incitement of the local media since the isolation of former President Mohamed Morsi , where opposition parties have considered that their presence in Egypt has won the support of his government , which calls for targeted after dropping , which is documented in a special report issued by the Commission on the situation of refugees Syrians in Egypt, and this has led to the formation of inciting social tension towards refugees , and increased the suffering of everyday life , as imposed on the Syrians to get a visa to Egypt starting from 07/08/2013 .
It should here be noted that tens of thousands of Syrians, they found their way to other countries, such as the Gulf States and the Maghreb countries, and many of them are trying various ways to reach Europe and the United States and Canada in order to get the humanitarian and political asylum there. Have been recorded in the past months, several incidents of sinking boats carrying refugees, illegal immigrants trying to cross to Europe , most recently on 09/25/2013 ship when it sank off the Italian coast , it was possible at the time rescue about 700 refugees .
Number of European countries have set up residence for those who reach their countries, where such camps set up in Bulgaria, Italy, Greece camps, and many of the violations happen against refugees in these camps, especially in Italy, where the camp guards beat refugees harshly, and the separation of children from their parents, and try to force them to return to their country. The impact of asylum on the host communities
It leads in general to political, social and economic problems in host communities, a problem that meant studying specialists in subject’s asylum, as they have a vital impact on the refugees and host communities, and even the international organizations working with refugees in host country.
The resulting influx of Syrian refugees to neighboring countries in large numbers, and for a long period of time, almost two and a half so far, to the aggravation of many of the political, economic and social problems in the host countries, differed from state to state.
Economically, the presence of refugees form a big burden on the countries least income in the region (Jordan and Lebanon), and which are hosting about two million Syrian on their own, as the impact on jobs significantly, as a result of the entry of many refugees to the labor market, competitive rivalry domestic worker.
In Iraq, Egypt and Turkey, the small number of refugees compared with the number of people significantly-limit- the size of this problem, compared to Jordan and Lebanon. While the number of Lebanon s population of about 4 million people, and the number of Jordan s population of 6.5 million people, each of whom is hosting about one million Syrian refugees, while the number of Egypt s population of about 85 million people, and the number of Iraq s population of about 35 million, are hosting together about 400 thousand Syria, while Turkey has a population of about 77 million people and hosts about one million Syrian refugees. But the economic impact of the most prominent was in the government s ability to allocate resources working to support refugees, unless it gets significantly only in Turkey, while leaving the greatest burden in both Lebanon and Jordan on international support, even though the latter does not cover all the necessary requirements, particularly requirements on public services in-dir-ect, education and protection as services and infrastructure. According to international estimates that the conflict in Syria, Lebanon cost -$- 7.5 billion between 2012 and 2014 , according to the statement by World Bank President Jim Yong Kim during the meeting of the support group for Lebanon in 09/23/2013 , also pointed out that by the end of 2014 will be a number Lebanese unemployed 200 to 300 000 is double the unemployment rate of more than 20 %, which will lead to increased social tensions , while in Jordan , the Governor of the Central Bank predicted in 28/10/2013 , the total growth rate was reduced by two points because of the presence of Syrian refugees in the UK, Also noted a study by Oxford Economic Group that the Kingdom has seen a rise in prices due to the presence of hundreds of thousands of refugees where , although the study points to some positive effects on the Jordanian economy aspects , such as low unemployment rate , contrary to what refers to press reports handled by the media Jordan , the unemployment rate in 2012 declined from 12.9% to 12.2 % , after pumping about -$- billion by the Syrians in the Jordanian market , a figure that is taller expects the study this year by 3%.
Also raises the presence of Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey politically problematic and social result of the split attitudes toward what is happening in Syria, in Lebanon affiliated forces engaged Hezbollah, a partner in the Lebanese government, fighting alongside the Syrian government, and play by the security services controlled by tightening on refugees and detention, making Syrian refugees and their presence a source of political and social tension in them.
The presence of Syrian refugees in Jordan, became another source of social and political debate, where is the Syrian refugees subject for discussion every day, especially the presence of deputies and journalists loyal to the Syrian regime, they are inciting the refugees, and a culture of hatred towards them. For example, the deputy in the Jordanian Parliament facilitator narrative on 27/03/2013 accusing Syrian refugee in Jordan, the practice of temporary marriage and the management of brothels .
In Turkey, an issue of Syrian asylum, the size of government aid for Syrian refugees hub ongoing political debate, social, and sectarian diversity in Turkey, as in Lebanon, leaving its impact heavily on how social dealing with the issue of asylum, and is reflected even in the handling of government employees and persons ordinary according to sectarian diversity.
In Egypt, the presence of Syrian refugees did not significantly influence on Egyptian society, due to their small number compared with the number of people on the one hand, and the presence of a large proportion of them excel financially, but the Egyptian economic reports pointed to a rise in allocated for rent´-or-sell real estate prices due to pumping money brought by these people, many of whom are owners of capital fleeing from Syria.
D- The impact of asylum on the Syrian refugees lives:
Syrian refuge es face in various countries of asylum are many social and economic pressures that have an impact on them in real time´-or-long-term , the effects vary depending on the host country on the one hand , according to the social conditions of refugees ( and the presence of relatives,´-or-the presence of able to work in a desirable careers in persons the host country,´-or-possession of a refugee to documents and testimonies , and the nature of the expertise and culture that possessed a refugee, which reflected positive on its ability to adapt to the new non- natural conditions ) .
Among the most important problems faced by Syrian refugees, just like the rest of the refugees around the world, the problem of social profiling, associated with the outlook of inferiority for refugees-;- as a person in need of help and support on the one hand, and people lacking social protection networks formed by people in their environments, and the absence of this protection in the event of exit of their countries. The increasing problem is acute in light of media attacks and political statements made by supporters of the Syrian regime in asylum countries, such as Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan, which helps in the consecration of the negative qualities that posed by these supporters, especially with regard to the moral aspect, because of the sensitivity of this matter in Arab societies.
Refugees in general, facing large problem in education , although most of the host countries legally allow the annexation of refugee students to public schools , but public schools in these countries not been able to accommodate these students , also it faced the problem of inclusion of students who do not have official documents from their schools in Syria , which is the case most of the refugees , which led to the loss of one academic year at least for a lot of students , especially in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan.
In Turkey, the students faced a language problem, where it was not possible to integrate them in the public education system, which has necessitated the creation of special schools within the camps,´-or-customize the academic year, full to learn the Turkish language, which increased the school dropout rates among students of refugees. There is no doubt-;- the tens of thousands of students dropping out of school will have a very significant impact in the future on an entire generation.
The refugees also face health problems , especially in Lebanon and Jordan , where they cannot afford health services provided by the State and international organizations to secure all services needed by the refugees , causing the spread of many diseases , and number of deaths , especially with the presence of extensive life problems, as a result of weakness services provided, where their tents cannot resist winter cold, and summer heat , in 04/12/2012 three children died in the Zaatari refugee camp because of the cold , and two children died 01.09.2013 after flooding inundated the camp. Syrian refugees are also suffering in Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt of security problems, as a result of the authorities there are arbitrary arrests against refugees,´-or-to deport them arbitrarily,´-or-kidnapped by the militias, as happened in Lebanon, most of the time under the pretext they are opponents of the Syrian regime. Children s in the camps in all the countries affected in the system of values that growing up on them, where the organizers of the schools noted in the camps spread of violence among many of the students, and lack of respect for the law , as well as the impact of the neglect of the international community to the Syrian issue in general , and the issue of refugees in particular, the spread of the phenomenon of extremism and fundamentalism among the refugees , and the Syrians in general, and it would leave an impact on the Syrian society in the future.
Section 3: escaping from hill to other:
From the center of the darkness and the Twinkle shelling and bombs, step by step, injured, tired, hungry, scared and lost, the first Syrian refugee incision his way to borders of Jordan, followed by hundreds of families, then thousands, and here the story began.
Zaatari refugee camp is the camp of Syrian refugees who have come to Jordan after the month of July 2012 of the events that accompanied the Syrian war, which broke out in 2011. The camp was held about 20 kilometers east of the city of Mafraq northeast Jordan in Mafraq Governor-ate. is the camp of Syrian refugees who have come to Jordan after the month of July 2012 of the events that accompanied the Syrian war, which broke out in 2011. The camp was held about 20 kilometers east of the city of Mafraq northeast Jordan in Mafraq Governor-ate.
This report is not the first nor was the last about the status of Syrian women refugees in Zaatari Jordan camp, cases of rape and abuse of power and extortion of women sexually in exchange for food, and threatened with death, talk about exploitation if marriage some of the people is greater than the reconstruction of fathers asylum,´-or-sexual harassment of workers arrived from the camp with some women.
This report and many others, was submitted to the UN envoys for human rights, local and international media, some may Stung by information contained in the report have, also been lifted this report to a number of embassies for donated countries.
Nadia (18 years), talks about her story, where he tried four harassment by workers inside the swimming mixed in the camp, she said: (I am afraid for myself to stay here, it has been a nightmare ... I imagined those moments, when I was screaming and begging residents of nearby tents , to rid it of maintenance workers gathered to rape me) ... And went on saying : ( dozens of young men rushed into the toilet , and they started beating up the aggressors with their hands and kicked their feet , before the existing security forces intervene in the place) ...
Selma (29 years) said: shocking scenes of many stories of harassment suffered by girl’s escapees outside the borders of the homeland. She says: I came here alone among the hundreds of refugees ... and she talk about vehicles loaded with foods and drinking water, inters the camp stressing that some of the workers firing sexual statements against refugee women, and sometimes things evolve to the point of harassment frank...
Fatima (23 years) recalls another refugee shocking scenes of the girls offered them requests for marriage customary versus deported from the camp and to ensure spending on them, note that most of these marriages were through intermediaries, many of which have the aim of prostitution. She says: ( I still remember it very well … a man entered the camp with luxury car and invoked to provide assistance, but he soon started taking photos for girls, as the one his comrade’s started to offer money, trying to get close to girl she was asking for food and water ). And when I asked here that why she didn’t report that to the security? She said: (We cannot ask the police to prevent people from entering the camp), she continue: (A lot of guys come here under the pretext of providing food and drink, but soon we found out that they are just more intermediaries marriages have found their way to the camp, some of them enters as a relief workers .. But they tried to seduce the girls. The problem is growing along with the growth of the Jordanian camp... This is due in part because of the poverty and despair that lives under the brunt of many refugee families...
Most of people think that refugee camps mean some tents and food and water,´-or-some hygiene kits and blankets. Among one of the most important elements in rights’ of refugees is to feel safe, not just eat and drink. This task is the responsibility of the host country, by securing the camp from any dangers inside´-or-outside the camp, For example, often fall incidents of sexual harassment within the camp by the residents of the locals, who enter under the pretext of providing aid , causing violent clashes between refugees, Syrians and local residents , and this cause calls for it enters later security to circumscribe the problem , according to the testimony of Zeinab ( 25 years ) where she said : when some Jordanian youths infiltrated the housing and photographing Syrian girls , angering parents who clashed immediately with these, and widened the circle of engagement following the post dozens of parties , prompting the intervention of the Jordanian security forces ...
Despite suffering manifold for tens of thousands of Syrian refugees in Jordan , which do not stop at an harassment , it jumped to the fore during the recent several stories to Syrian girls marry underage, exchange for small amounts of money , which is where some saw legislation to rape,´-or-disguised prostitution, the largest of them the wife of the Syrian that can marry her one hundred Jordanian dinars ( -$- 150 ) , who wants to marry , but what they are going to one of the camps to choose one of them . Some parents seek to vest their daughters, and accept the urgent marriages without conditions, Money just plain fast and marriage.Through the opinions of some clerics, which allow the marriage of minors, the marriage happen inside mosques through civil contract, away from the control of the law, under the pretext of helping girls Syrian, and soon found the young and the elderly who wish to marry from Syrian girls on the basis that they are refugees and they need help, living conditions are difficult and fears of being raped , those bad conditions forced Syrian parents to marry off their daughters at an early age , and because determining the legal marriage age in Jordan, parents resort to marry non- formal and non- registered with the authorities.
Where it is spread in the camps are the brokers of illegal marriage, which is what is happening now in Syrian refugee camps in Jordan, Turkey and Lebanon , where Syrian girl sold under the name of marriage, inside the camps many marriage brokers to choose the girls are beautiful and younger men weakening their age, and the reason is the bad condition for Syrian refugees, for livelihood and to save their daughters from the risk of the camps, which could be up to the kidnapping , rape and poor living conditions inside , the Syrian wife would not cost the groom only fill out a form and pay a cash amount to marriage brokers before getting a wife within days.
The dangerous thing is the recitation of religion men and promotion and advocacy for this kind of marriage, under the pretext of protection of underage girls from displacement and rape. But there is no law to protect them and guarantee the right of the wife. a 70 years old Jordanian man married whit a 12 years old Syrian girl ..!!! And early marriages under the age of 18 years continues to grow is not a refugee camp Zaatari and by, but among all the refugees in the world.
The offers and invitations to marry a Syrian refugee girls in Jordan where misuse Syrian women and the exploitation of refugee status outside Syria. And marriage with Syrian girls from refugee camps resulted in negative results, where Samira (19 years) preferred return to the hell of camp - a cording to her words- in order to preserve her dignity, after being married to a Jordanian citizen and after a while asked her to work in prostitution, not to mention marriages which come by the groom to the inside camps marry a girl of Syria, and a week after leaving the pretext of securities processing, but do not return, and the results are to be increased in the preparation of the underage brides , and marriages may end up most likely to abandon the wife,´-or-force them to work as prostitutes .. and the fear that exploit the prostitution networks plight of Syrian and targeting their activities refugee , just as it did during the political crises in Iraq and Bosnia.
Zaatari refugee camp .. tragedy beyond de-script-ion, and status such as that the suffering of the Syrian Women and children is double , and even displaced women who have been forced to leave their homeland abroad found themselves in front of another confrontation , entitled to seek to exploit their position in the marriage project looks like coercion does not but it bestowed pain and suffering ..
Thousands of pregnant women living in the Zaatari Syrian refugee camp in Jordan in harsh conditions , as most of them are not able to secure the necessities of food and medicine .
With the absence of accurate figures showing whether the war affected the birth rates between the Syrian negatively´-or-positively , but it is certain that the numbers for more than a few of the Syrians come to the birth day of life within the extremely difficult conditions , both within the country´-or-neighboring countries of asylum .
But life in the Zaatari refugee camp conditions are not the only problem facing pregnant women, also lack of proper diet and lack of minimum hygiene are considered the most important problems facing pregnant women in Zaatari, where-limit-ed food that gets him refugees on bread, canned food and some grain, but It does not include any vegetables´-or-fruit´-or-meat´-or-cheese´-or-dairy.
And consequent malnutrition that health problems facing pregnant woman and the fetus, and displays Mrs. dry milk after childbirth becomes unable to breastfeed her child, and the collective baths used by the camp s residents lack of cleanliness and adequate quantities of water, so the pregnant women susceptible to infections that would cause deforms embryos when they occur early in pregnancy.
The attributes do not resort Syrian refugee families to family planning methods during the war conditions and asylum, to the problem of awareness and ignorance, sometimes , there are those who want to make up for lost sons , and others are hoping that the war is over and go back to normal within months of pregnancy .
If we refer to the risks and the current difficulties currently faced by the Syrian refugees, and to the seriousness of the implications of the continued living in camps for more than five million Syrians, we emphasize the following recommendations:
It should not separate the problem of asylum for the underlying causes that these refugees urged to leave their homes and resort to the neighboring countries and the rest of the states and without addressing these causes by stopping the offending Syrian regime s gross violations of human rights in Syria, the asylum problem will keep growing.
The international community needs to take care of its responsibilities towards refugees, especially since it bears the responsibility for the escalation of serious violations that led to the asylum crisis, by ignoring the international community to these violations, and its inability to carry out any real and effective position to stop them.
The need to make a greater effort from all local and international human rights organizations to document violations against refugees in various countries around the world, life and the circumstances in which they are exposed , and a special focus on the suffering of children, women and the wounded , the elderly and people with special needs like handicap people.
It is important to oral testimonies of refugees to be documented the violations they have suffered before they left for Syria, which led them to resort, and assume the difficult living conditions in the camps, registration of these violations is important and necessary for the -function-ing of justice and punish the perpetrators of human rights crimes, which is the right of future generations in Syria to learn the brutal size suffered by civilians.
Should all the different media, to shed more light on the suffering of the Syrian refugees and on all the relevant authorities allocate more resources, so we all can improve living conditions for refugees, where ever they exist.
on behalf of me all my colleagues working in UNRWA, this is appeal to all local and international civil society organizations, implement targeted refugees development and educational projects, and especially children, in order to equip them with the expertise and life skills to help them invest asylum in a positive period, and provide them with tools to overcome this hard stage.
Note - The names of witnesses have been changed at their request